The Interplanetary Network Progress Report is a quarterly refereed journal published exclusively electronically by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory at It reports principally on activities of the Interplanetary Network Directorate (IND) in planning, research, technology development, implementation, and operations in the areas of network, communications, navigation, information systems, Deep Space Network (DSN) science, mission support, communication standards, protocols, and spectrum engineering. Tasks funded by the JPL Director's Research Discretionary Fund, the Research & Technology Development Fund, and other programs that involve the IND also are included.